Immunogenicity of monococcum wheat in celiac patients

Immunogenicity of monococcum wheat in celiac patients

Gianfrani et al. 2012

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease that is triggered by the ingestion of wheat gliadins and related prolamins from other cereals, such as barley and rye. To make life more comfortable, research is intense to find wheat of low or null toxicity for patients with celiac disease (CD). Among candidates, there are diploid wheat species.

In this study, the authors compared the immunological properties of 2 lines of diploid monococcum wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum), Monlis and ID331, with those of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Interferon-γ production and the proliferation of intestinal gliadin-specific T cell lines and clones were measured as evidence of T cell activation by peptic and tryptic (PT) digests of gliadins from 2 monococcum lines. Furthermore, organ cultures of jejunal biopsies from 28 CD patients were set up to assess the effects of PT gliadin on innate and adaptive immune response by using immunohistochemistry.

The results show that Monlis and ID331 induced interferon-γ production and proliferation in celiac mucosal T cells. In organ cultures, Monlis PT digest induced a significant increase of IL-15 epithelial expression and crypt enterocyte proliferation, whereas ID331 had no effect. Both monococcum lines caused intraepithelial T cell infiltration and lamina propria T cell activation. In conclusion, both monococcum lines Monlis and ID331 are virtually unsafe for CD patients. Nevertheless, Monlis seemed to be able to activate both innate and adaptive immune responses, whereas ID331 seemed to activate only an adaptive immune response. More studies are required to explore if a monococci-based diet could still result in a reduced incidence of CD.

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